Design a garden according to gardening styles
Among the styles most often adopted in the construction of a garden we propose here three of the most known and appreciated: the contemporary garden, the Italian garden and the English garden. The so-called "classic Italian garden" was born in Florence in the fifteenth century. The underlying logic of this garden is to find the right balance between rational rigor and creative imagination. The characteristics that all these gardens share, therefore, are the geometry of the paths and the flower beds, the great use of evergreens, the trimmed hedges in regular forms, the stupendous architecture and the constant, and sometimes massive, presence of statues and fountains. The avenues, in fact, are used as perspective axes that connect the various parts of the garden, highlighting elements such as terraces and stairways. Particular attention, as has been said, is given to trees and shrubs in order to give them a geometric shape, different from that naturally assumed by the plant, for ornamental purposes. Formal hedges are thus formed, or, starting from individual specimens or small groups, subjects with various abstract forms.
The English garden, on the other hand, no longer uses elements to define and circumscribe space in a geometric manner, but takes advantage of the alternation of natural and artificial elements, caves, streams, large trees, but also temples and ruins. The goal is to let the landscape be discovered gradually without giving an overview, as well as giving an impression of naturalness without the green space being uncultivated. The English garden in its appearance all so natural presents the same care and dedication to the plants, which, however, in this case must not be subjected to rigid patterns.
When we speak of naturalness in an English garden, we must not think that this is a disorganized planting on the ground, but it is a targeted intervention that pushes the alternating presence of plant species that can guarantee a whole year long pleasant aesthetic appearance not giving the impression of the presence of man in his design.
Finally, the contemporary garden deserves a mention: the most typical characteristic of this garden is the connection between the interior and the exterior, between building and nature, which is realized with elongated plants or by providing connecting elements such as pergolas and patios that can be covered for example with climbing plants.
In-depth reading was a critical alternative to the vision of the plant, leading to the recognition of the qualitative perception of space and the environment. This reading extended the intentionality of the project to the components of the landscape, analyzing the site in all its elements and making possible the integration between form and function that the plan view and the zooning tended to separate. First of all, contemporary architects, without neglecting the time factor, are inspired by contemporary art and architecture. The gardens are no longer organized according to the classical style, following geometries or a single axis, but they move in multi-axial, diagonal and asymmetrical spaces; the garden project, intended as a place for people, considers changes in the social and environmental structure. The use of new materials due to technological development such as plastics, metals, glass wool rock formations, fiber optic lighting become part of the park or green areas project. From the post-war period to the present it has gone from the concept of "green space" to that of "passage". In the new vision of post-war landscape design, guidelines emerge in the design of green areas and redevelopment of the urban landscape:
- the elongated plant favors the natural ventilation of the building and at the same time establishes a connection within the site. Becoming a path and a continuous link;
- the constructive element of interconnection between exterior and interior: a porch open to the landscape, a terrace or an external platform, connected to the building by a mobile or light roof. In urban homes, it becomes a patio, an inner courtyard or an atrium;
- the external envelope becomes an element of connection between the built and nature, between the inorganic and the organic, in a continuous search for dialogue between architecture and the landscape.
The presence of greenery constitutes an element of great importance from the cultural point of view, it can favor the knowledge of botany and more generally of natural sciences and the environment.
Even the aesthetic - architectural function is significant, considering that the presence of greenery definitely improves the urban landscape and makes staying in the city more pleasant, so it becomes essential to favor an integration between architectural and green elements in the field of furnishing design urban.