Today, palm cultivation can be done at home, and if such a desire arises, you should pay attention to the benefits of the Canary date. The plant creates a cheerful atmosphere and coziness in the room, it cleans the air from dust and impurities, creating a comfortable microclimate in the house. Before planting a palm tree, you should learn about the features of its cultivation.
Benefits and characteristics of the palm tree
The Canary date belongs to the Arekov family. The palm tree has a short columnar trunk and bluish green leaves, due to which the plant is characterized by lightness and airiness. It forms female and male inflorescences, the former are creamy, the latter are orange-yellow in color. In nature, the tree is capable of reaching a height of 20 m and forming a trunk up to 1 m. Fruits are small, oval and orange in color.
The advantage of the Canary date is considered unpretentiousness, for good growth it is important for it to provide a bright room and regular watering. Some of the advantages of a palm tree include:
- good survival rate;
- the ability to purify the air;
- the ability to show good growth at temperatures from +10 to +18 C, which makes it possible to grow on a loggia.
The plant is capable of reaching large sizes, so you should think in advance about the future location of its placement. At home, a palm tree can grow up to 1.4 m, so it is better to place it near a wall where there is not a large degree of activity of people and animals.
Varieties of varieties
Today, there are several types of Canarian dates on the horticultural market, differing in appearance and growth properties. One of the most popular is Luxor, which is grown from seed. A young plant grows as a bush, in the future it is able to form a trunk.
The variety is intended for landscaping offices and planting at home, a palm tree can grow up to 2 m.
We grow a date from a stone
Many plant lovers have experience growing dates from seed. The correct choice of soil, pre-sowing processing of the material, compliance with growing conditions is of great importance. Growing a date from a stone is a lengthy process that takes an average of 3 months.
Seed selection for planting
The seed for planting is taken only from those fruits that have not been heat treated. For these purposes, withered or dried dates are suitable. Planting several seeds at the same time will help increase the chances of getting seedlings.
Before planting, it is important to properly prepare the bone, for which its surface is thoroughly cleaned of pulp. Poorly carried out removal will lead to mold and negatively affect the germination of the shoot. Next, the bone is placed in cold water for 48 hours, periodically it is required to change the liquid to a new one. After 2 days, a repeated cleaning procedure from pulp residues is carried out.
Experienced gardeners advise you to resort to some tricks that speed up the emergence of sprouts. The most popular ones include:
- place the seed in hot water for 10 minutes, which will allow seedlings to appear in a couple of weeks;
- make a puncture in the surface of the bone or grind off the base with sandpaper, which will help moisture gain access inside.
Properly selected soil and irrigation regime will help ensure the quality of seed germination.
Required soil composition
For successful germination of sprouts and further growth, it is required to provide the date with light and loose soil. The palm tree has a weak and fragile root system, so heavy soil is not suitable for these purposes. A simpler option is to purchase a substrate for date varieties in a specialized store, but you can independently prepare the earth from sawdust, humus, peat and sand.
For planting, take a container of small volume, it is enough to choose 0.3-0.5 liters. A shallow pit is formed in the ground, into which a bone is placed vertically and carefully sprinkled with earth. Next, the planting site is moistened and the container is removed to a warm place for germination. A drainage hole must be provided to remove excess moisture.
A lot of time can pass from the moment of planting to the appearance of a sprout, so you should not worry, but you should periodically water the ground as the soil dries up. At first, a simple leaf will appear, later an arrow will form from 2-3 plates.
Optimum conditions for good tree growth
You can grow a Canary date at home, observing certain growing rules. Experts advise choosing seeds for these purposes, since the chances of getting seedlings are much greater. For good growth, it is necessary to provide the plant with proper care.
It is recommended to place the Canary date on the south side, if there is insufficient light, the plant will slow down its development. In the summer, it is permissible to take the palm tree out into the open air, to the territory of the personal plot, gradually accustoming it to the sun. The plant tolerates gusts of wind and precipitation well, is not afraid of direct sunlight and precipitation.
In winter, the illumination decreases, which can negatively affect the condition of the palm tree. To exclude such a situation, it is required to lower the temperature and, if possible, organize artificial lighting.
The Canary date is able to grow at high temperatures, but the optimal growing conditions for it are considered to be the indoor regime + 20 ... + 25 C. To transfer the winter period to a tropical plant will help to reduce the indicator to + 8 ... + 14 C.
Providing periodic ventilation is one of the important conditions for growing Canarian dates. Stagnant and stale air will adversely affect plant growth. Sudden changes in temperature should not be allowed, therefore, in offices, a palm tree should not be placed near doorways, when opening which there is a risk of direct blowing of cold air.
Irrigation and irrigation regime
Natural qualities allow the palm to carry dry air, but there will be a problem of drying out the tips of the leaf plates. The optimum humidity for the date is 50%; to increase the indicator, a fountain or an aquarium is placed in the premises.
It has a positive effect on the condition of the plant by spraying with boiled water on hot days. Such actions are carried out only in the summer, in winter this should not be done.
In summer, the plant requires abundant watering, but there should be no stagnation of moisture. In winter, moistening is carried out in a smaller volume, controlling the absence of drying out of the soil near the root system. Only warm soft water is used for watering, cold or hard water leads to the appearance of brown spots on the leaves.
Top dressing is carried out during the period of active growth 1 time every 14 days. In winter, the frequency is increased up to 1 time every month. For these purposes, complex mineral and organic fertilizers are used, which alternate sequentially.
When and how to transplant correctly
As the plants grow, the soil layer is increased in the container. The palm tree should be transplanted only when the root system has tightly entwined the entire clod of earth. The following plant transplant rules are observed:
- young - no more than 1 or 2 times a year;
- adults - once every 3 or 5 years.
Large-sized producers are provided with the replacement of the top layer of soil. Due to this feature, when transplanting a plant, you should select in advance pots of sufficient capacity for plant growth for several years.
Does a home-grown date palm bear fruit?
At home, fruiting from a palm tree should not be expected. The flowering of dates is observed only in natural conditions, and the return of the crop is possible only when a growth of 15 m or more is reached.
The Canary date is propagated only by seeds. For these purposes, only fruits that have not been heat treated are suitable. The palm tree is characterized by slow growth, complex-pinnate leaves can be expected only in the 4th year.
Possible problems and solutions
The appearance of problems with a palm tree can be immediately understood by the appearance of the plant. There are few reasons for the disease of a plant, all of them are associated with violations of the rules of cultivation or the harmful effects of pests and microorganisms.
Pests and diseases - fighting them
The Canary date is susceptible to damage by the scale insect and the mealybug. Excessive dryness in the air increases the risk of ticks. To exclude disease, plants take preventive measures to prevent their appearance. It is enough to periodically inspect the plant. At the first sign of a problem, the leaves are washed with water and treated with targeted chemicals.
Most often used for pest control are "Aktara", "Akarin", "Intra-Vir".
Leaves turn yellow or darken
Yellowing of the lower leaves is considered normal in some cases. Over time, old leaf blades die off, and a discoloration is the first sign of the beginning of the process. If the yellowness has covered a significant part of the crown, then with a high degree of probability this is due to insufficient lighting and moisture of the plant.
The appearance of a dark color at the tips of the leaves and their drying indicates excessive dryness of the air. At the same time, the humidity is increased, and the plant is sprayed with warm water. The appearance of a significant size of dark spots on the leaves can be associated with both waterlogging and excessive watering, in some cases the plant reacts in this way to hypothermia or transportation.
The palm tree stopped growing
There can be many reasons for the lack of growth of a palm tree. One of them is the temperature regime; insufficiently high temperature can cause a slowdown or stop of plant growth. The horse system stops developing at +16 C, which automatically deprives the shoots of opportunities for further growth.
The problem of inhibition of plant growth may be associated with a lack of trace elements in the soil. One of the most common reasons for palm trees to stop growing is a deficiency of iron and manganese in the soil. An increase in soil acidity values above 7 pH also negatively affects the development of the plant.