How to water and plant it
The fennel does not need a large amount of water. Depending on the season and rainfall in the areas where it is grown, the irrigation frequency is adjusted. Like almost all the plants that are grown in the open field, watering must be carried out when the earth is dry and no rainfall is expected in the days to come. During the summer season you must remember to water during the cool hours of the day, in the early morning or after sunset. The exposure of the fennel is in the sun, keeping it sheltered from the gusts of wind, which could break the stems creating serious damage to the plants until they die. The sowing of fennel is done during spring or during winter if special greenhouses are available. The plants born will be planted in April.
How to grow fennel
To cultivate the fennel, care must be taken to avoid water stagnation, in fact a certain amount of sand is added to the soil, if there were not naturally. It is advisable to grow fennel in areas where temperatures are above four degrees during the winter, otherwise if the temperature drops for some time, the plants could die or otherwise be damaged. The flowers of the fennel should be cut before the seeds ripen so as to control the spread of the plants, in fact the seeds could fly all over the ground causing an infestation. It is advisable to maintain the crop in special flower beds. However the plants are cut off at the base before the winter frosts, to then make the mulching using straw mattress or similar. This guarantees the life of the roots and therefore new growth the following season.
How to fertilize and harvest it
Fennel fertilization must be done prior to sowing, using matured manure or potassium and phosphorus and nitrogen based fertilizers. It is good not to overdo these fertilizers, as the plant absorbs nitrates quickly. The intake is performed at two different times, before the plants thin out and after about twenty days. As for fennel harvesting, sprouts and leaves can be made during all seasons. Seeds should be harvested after they are fully ripe but before they fall to the ground. After having dried and cleaned them it is possible to keep them in glass jars, in order to avoid the creation of molds that would render all the production unusable. The blooms are cut before the seeds fall, at the end of the summer, the branches, instead, are joined in bunches and left to dry in the sun for a week, until there is no trace of humidity that would act as a receptacle for bacteria and fungi.
Fennel: Property and adversity
The properties of the fennel are different and long known, in fact this plant was already widely used since ancient times. Surely the most famous and exploited properties are the stimulant and digestive ones, but we must know that this perennial herbaceous plant has remarkable antispasmodic properties and helps to expel the intestine gases. In addition, its antiseptic properties have also recently been discovered and for this reason, its infusion is used for inflammation of the eyes or to gargle in case of heavy breath. Speaking of problems and diseases that could affect the fennel, we remember the rot of both the collar and the roots and the sealing. There are also parasitic insects like aphids and moths that could damage plants.